Green Vegetable and Herb Guide

This guide is by no means complete, but it will be added to over time. See here for some general information about how to navigate the vegetable section at your favorite Asian market.

For a detailed list of common Southeast Asian herbs, see my post on The Fresh Herb Section.

Indexes in English and Chinese:

AA choy
Acacia fronds
Amaranth leaves
Bokchoy
Chaplu leaves
Chinese broccoli
Chinese celery
Chinese mustard greens
Choy sum
Chrysanthemum leaves
Curry leaves
Dill
En choy
Fish mint
Gai choy
Gailan choy
Green onion
Holy basil
Ivy gourd leaves
Kaffir lime leaves
Lemon basil
Long beans
Malabar spinach
Morning glory
Napa cabbage
Pea leaf tips
Pennywort
Purslane
Purple perilla
Rice paddy herb
Sawtooth herb
Shanghai choy
Taiwan bokchoy
Thai basil
Vietnamese mint
Watercress
Water spinach
Wingbeans
Yuchoy
AA菜
白菜
白通菜
菠菜
菜心
潺菜
长召菜
葱花
大白菜
豆角
豆苗
回回苏
芥菜
芥兰菜
高丽菜
马齿苋
奶油菜
王帝菜
松好
上海菜
台湾白菜
茼蒿
王帝菜
西洋菜
苋菜
油菜
鱼腥草
召菜
绍菜
中芹
紫苏


AA Choy – AA菜, 油麥菜

This vegetable is commonly sold in Chinatown, and at larger markets of Washington Ave. It is sold as just the tips, or together with the stalk.

Notice the Chinese is also labeled with the latin character “A”. The name for this in Taiwan comes from an indigenous language, that sounds something like “A”. With the Cantonese word for vegetable, we get “A Choy”.


Acacia Fronds (Cha-om)

Has a funky, somewhat sulfurous odor. Popular in Thai and Lao cooking. Delicious in omelettes and Lao-style bamboo stews. Highlighted in a post on one such stew.


Amaranth leaves (En choy) 苋菜苋菜苗
Eat it like spinach, very good lightly sauteed with garlic, oil, and a little salt.

Can be found in Chinatown on occasion, more often found at large markets of Washington Ave, also sold at North Philly’s BK market.


Bokchoy 白菜,奶油菜

Bokchoy comes in many sizes and shapes. The name simply means “White leafy vegetable” (i.e. cabbage). Some varieties have white stems, and some have green stems. Some are giant, and some are baby-sized. The Chinese name often used in Philadelphia for the white-stemmed variety is “butter vegetable” 奶油菜. See variations below Shanghai choy and Taiwan choy for more examples.

Can be found in all East Asia-focused markets, and many larger Southeast Asian markets (i.e. Washington Ave), and it can also be found at many mainstream groceries in Philadelphia (though those vegetables are much larger).

Can be eaten stir-fried, in soups, or blanched in water and served with a sauce.


Cha Plu leaves

Popular all across Southeast Asia, used most frequently for wrapping savory bites. Has a mild peppery flavor, and is highlighted in a curry soup post here.


Korean Cabbage 高丽菜

This is a variety of cabbage that comes not round, but slightly flat and often in very large sizes. Taste is very similar to round green western-style cabbage. Can be sauteed, put into soups, or eaten raw as an accompaniment.


Chinese broccoli, Chinese kale, Gailan choy 芥蓝菜, 芥兰菜,芥兰苗

This vegetable can be found in all East Asian markets, and also in many Southeast Asian markets. If it is young, it can be coarsely chopped and fried with garlic, or as a component of multi-ingredient stir fries. Use the stems too. The taste is similar to western broccoli stems (hence the name). It can also be blanched in water and served with sauce on the side. If the vegetable is older, with a tougher stalk, peel the stalk with a vegetable peeler to help it cook.


Chinese celery 中芹, 芹菜

The flavor of this is slightly more concentrated than western celery, and it is a common ingredient in stir-fries.


Chinese Garlic Chives (Stems-flowers, and leaves) 韭菜 (韭菜花,韭菜)

Chinese garlic chives have a slightly pungent odor, but are great for several cooking preparations. Chive stems have a nice bite to them when fried as a vegetable, chive leaves are delicious in omelettes, and are an essential ingredient in Pad Thai.


Chinese mustard greens, gai choy 芥菜,大芥菜,小芥菜

Chinese mustard greens are a little bitter, but they can be a delicious accompaniment to savory dishes. I used them here in a classic Northern Thai soup. The image to the right is young mustard greens. These are also sold in later maturity, which are much bigger, with twisty leaves resembling a cross between lettuce and cabbage.


Choysum 菜心

Literally means “leafy vegetable heart”, and could apply to a few different vegetables. Usually it is yuchoy or Chinese mustard greens.


Chrysanthemum Leaves 松好,茼蒿, 大松好,大茼蒿

Chrysanthemum leaves are delicious in hotpot, and also in fish soups. They have a very unique flavor, and can’t be easily replaced with something else. Commonly found at East Asia-focused markets, from Chinatown to H-Mart.


Cilantro 香菜

Cilantro (aka coriander) is one of the most common herbs in cooking in Asia. Essential in Chinese and Thai cuisines. Roots and stalks are commonly used in Thai soups/curries. Most cooking preparations will require fresh leaves as the dish is finished.


Curry Leaves

Curry leaves are an important ingredient for South Indian cooking. See here for a post on one such recipe, a Kerala-style fish curry. Curry leaves are also occasionally used in Cambodian cooking.

IMG_3415


Dill 莳萝

Dill is commonly found in mainstream groceries, and at some specialized Southeast Asian markets. It is an essential ingredient for Lao and Isaan stews, and can also be eaten raw with dips. See here for a post on a classic Lao stew with dill.


Green Onion 葱花

These are common in all cuisines, also known as scallions.


Fish MintIMG_3928


Holy Basil (Kapao, gapao)

This is a delicious herb that is most popularly used in Thai and Cambodian cooking. In Thailand it is used in the incredibly common chicken and basil stir fries. See here for a post on one such recipe.


Ivy Gourd Leaves

Dedicated post to this vegetable can be found here.


Kaffir Lime Leaf (makrut)

This is a very common herb across Southeast Asia. The peel of the fruit is also used in making Thai curry pastes. See here for a post on one such dish, green curry chicken.


Lemon Basil (ii tuu or maenglak)DSC00629


Long beans, yard-long beans, meter beans 豆角,长豆

These beans can be used raw in Southeast Asian cooking, and for stir fried dishes. I posted previously about the “four seasons” dish popular in Chinese restaurants, and also as a component of the popular Thai holy basil stir fry.


Long Napa cabbage 长召菜, 王帝菜

information yet to come.


Malabar spinach 潺菜

information yet to come.


Mint


Morning glory, water spinach, ong choy 白通菜,通心菜,空心菜, 蕹菜


Napa Cabbage 召菜,绍菜,大白菜


Pea leaf tips 豆苗


PennywortIMG_2495


Purple perilla 紫苏

Also known as purple shiso, or “beefsteak” shiso. This is a type of perilla popular in Hunan Chinese cooking and Vietnamese cooking (where it is known as tía tô).


Purslane 马齿苋

Dedicated post can be found here. This vegetable can occasionally be found at the First Oriental Market on Washington Ave, and seasonally in the summer on the weekend from street sellers in Chinatown.


Rice Paddy Herbnot semizotu


Sawtooth Coriander (sawtooth herb, culantro, recao)

IMG_1419

“sawtooth herb” or “sawtooth coriander”


Shanghai choy 上海白菜,白菜

Shanghai choy is a kind of bokchoy. Use it as you would a bokchoy. It comes in small and large sizes, and can be found in any East or Southeast-focused markets. The stem is greener than the other types of bokchoy.IMG_2522


Taiwan bokchoy 台湾白菜,白菜


Thai basil (horapha)


Vietnamese mint (Lady’s thumb, Vietnamese coriander, laksa leaf)

A popular herb throughout Southeast Asia, from Myanmar to Indonesia. In Vietnamese it is known as Rau răm, in Chinese 越南香菜. In Thailand and Laos the herb is called phak paew or phak fai ผักแพว/ຜັກແພວ (ผักไผ่/ຜັກໄຝ). Featured in this post on Northern Thai “soupy salad”.


Watercress 西洋菜

Watercress can be found not only in most East Asia focused markets, but also in many mainstream grocery stores. It is great lightly sauteed with a little garlic, oil, and salt. Cut it into 2″ lengths first. These are pre-sized in small bundles. Beware that they shrink when they cook. One bundle is good for two people, as an accompaniment to another dish.IMG_2597


Wingbeans

These can be eaten raw with spicy dips. Can be found only occasionally at specialty Southeast Asian markets (i.e. Cambodian markets of North or South Philadelphia).


Yuchoy 油菜

Yuchoy can be found in any East Asia-focused market, and many Southeast Asian markets. It is one of the most common vegetables. The literal name in Chinese is “oil vegetable”. This is because it is the plant that produces rapeseed, or canola oil. It has yellow flowers. This vegetable also comes in various sizes at the market. I like it best blanched in whole form, in boiling water and then stacked on a plate and served with a good dollop of oyster sauce.

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3 Responses to Green Vegetable and Herb Guide

  1. Pingback: New feature: Asian Green Vegetable Guide | Asian Markets of Philadelphia

  2. zipkachina says:

    Great resource page. Love reading about different foods/green. For me – they are a great source of energy. Are they grown locally? Do you use them in smoothies?

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hi Zipkachina, unfortunately most Asian markets don’t advertise where their produce comes from. I do happen to know at some very small shops we get some “home grown” items from time to time. Most of the big markets likely get their produce from the national “Asian Foods” distributors, with produce grown somewhere down south. No, I haven’t tried ANY of these in smoothies, but there is likely lots of exploring to do there! I use these most often just chopped up, fried with a bit of garlic and salt, and eaten with rice. Thanks for the comment! I do hope to make this better over time…

      Like

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