This guide is by no means complete, but it will be added to over time. See here for some general information about how to navigate the vegetable section at your favorite Asian market.
For a detailed list of common Southeast Asian herbs, see my post on The Fresh Herb Section.
Indexes in English and Chinese:
AA Choy – AA菜, 油麥菜
This vegetable is commonly sold in Chinatown, and at larger markets of Washington Ave. It is sold as just the tips, or together with the stalk.
Notice the Chinese is also labeled with the latin character “A”. The name for this in Taiwan comes from an indigenous language, that sounds something like “A”. With the Cantonese word for vegetable, we get “A Choy”.
Acacia Fronds (Cha-om)
Amaranth leaves (En choy) 苋菜，苋菜苗
Eat it like spinach, very good lightly sauteed with garlic, oil, and a little salt.
Can be found in Chinatown on occasion, more often found at large markets of Washington Ave, also sold at North Philly’s BK market.
Bokchoy comes in many sizes and shapes. The name simply means “White leafy vegetable” (i.e. cabbage). Some varieties have white stems, and some have green stems. Some are giant, and some are baby-sized. The Chinese name often used in Philadelphia for the white-stemmed variety is “butter vegetable” 奶油菜. See variations below Shanghai choy and Taiwan choy for more examples.
Can be found in all East Asia-focused markets, and many larger Southeast Asian markets (i.e. Washington Ave), and it can also be found at many mainstream groceries in Philadelphia (though those vegetables are much larger).
Can be eaten stir-fried, in soups, or blanched in water and served with a sauce.
Cha Plu leaves
Korean Cabbage 高丽菜
This is a variety of cabbage that comes not round, but slightly flat and often in very large sizes. Taste is very similar to round green western-style cabbage. Can be sauteed, put into soups, or eaten raw as an accompaniment.
Chinese broccoli, Chinese kale, Gailan choy 芥蓝菜, 芥兰菜，芥兰苗
This vegetable can be found in all East Asian markets, and also in many Southeast Asian markets. If it is young, it can be coarsely chopped and fried with garlic, or as a component of multi-ingredient stir fries. Use the stems too. The taste is similar to western broccoli stems (hence the name). It can also be blanched in water and served with sauce on the side. If the vegetable is older, with a tougher stalk, peel the stalk with a vegetable peeler to help it cook.
The flavor of this is slightly more concentrated than western celery, and it is a common ingredient in stir-fries.
Chinese Garlic Chives (Stems-flowers, and leaves) 韭菜 （韭菜花，韭菜）
Chinese mustard greens, gai choy 芥菜，大芥菜，小芥菜
Chinese mustard greens are a little bitter, but they can be a delicious accompaniment to savory dishes. I used them here in a classic Northern Thai soup. The image to the right is young mustard greens. These are also sold in later maturity, which are much bigger, with twisty leaves resembling a cross between lettuce and cabbage.
Literally means “leafy vegetable heart”, and could apply to a few different vegetables. Usually it is yuchoy or Chinese mustard greens.
Chrysanthemum Leaves 松好，茼蒿, 大松好，大茼蒿
Chrysanthemum leaves are delicious in hotpot, and also in fish soups. They have a very unique flavor, and can’t be easily replaced with something else. Commonly found at East Asia-focused markets, from Chinatown to H-Mart.
Dill is commonly found in mainstream groceries, and at some specialized Southeast Asian markets. It is an essential ingredient for Lao and Isaan stews, and can also be eaten raw with dips.
Green Onion 葱花
These are common in all cuisines, also known as scallions.
Holy Basil (Kapao, gapao)
Ivy Gourd Leaves
Dedicated post to this vegetable can be found here.
Kaffir Lime Leaf (magrut)
Lemon Basil (ii tuu or maenglak)
These beans can be used raw in Southeast Asian cooking, and for stir fried dishes. I posted previously about the “four seasons” dish popular in Chinese restaurants, and also as a component of the popular Thai holy basil stir fry.
Long Napa cabbage 长召菜, 王帝菜
information yet to come.
Malabar spinach 潺菜
information yet to come.
Morning glory, water spinach, ong choy 白通菜，通心菜，空心菜, 蕹菜
Napa Cabbage 召菜，绍菜，大白菜
Pea leaf tips 豆苗
Dedicated post can be found here. This vegetable can occasionally be found at the First Oriental Market on Washington Ave, and seasonally in the summer on the weekend from street sellers in Chinatown.
Rice Paddy Herb
Sawtooth Coriander (sawtooth herb, culantro, recao)
Shanghai choy 上海白菜，白菜
Shanghai choy is a kind of bokchoy. Use it as you would a bokchoy. It comes in small and large sizes, and can be found in any East or Southeast-focused markets. The stem is greener than the other types of bokchoy.
Taiwan bokchoy 台湾白菜，白菜
Thai basil (horapha)
Vietnamese mint (Lady’s thumb, Vietnamese coriander)
Watercress can be found not only in most East Asia focused markets, but also in many mainstream grocery stores. It is great lightly sauteed with a little garlic, oil, and salt. Cut it into 2″ lengths first. These are pre-sized in small bundles. Beware that they shrink when they cook. One bundle is good for two people, as an accompaniment to another dish.
These can be eaten raw with spicy dips. Can be found only occasionally at specialty Southeast Asian markets (i.e. Cambodian markets of North or South Philadelphia).
Yuchoy can be found in any East Asia-focused market, and many Southeast Asian markets. It is one of the most common vegetables. The literal name in Chinese is “oil vegetable”. This is because it is the plant that produces rapeseed, or canola oil. It has yellow flowers. This vegetable also comes in various sizes at the market. I like it best blanched in whole form, in boiling water and then stacked on a plate and served with a good dollop of oyster sauce.